Research Student: Ken Ohnishi
Analysing the Use of Compellence during Peace Operations
This research will examine under what conditions compellence is more likely to succeed in the context of peace operations. Compellence is a strategy which employs pressures, including the threat and actual use of force, in order to induce others to take action as demanded. This strategy seems useful in analysing the utility of force in contemporary peace operations. Once non-coercive endeavour to keep established peace in interstate conflicts, peace operations have evolved into more complex undertaking to stabilise and reconstruct states suffered from intrastate conflicts. In the course of this transformation, international forces in peace operations have come to be expected to use force, if necessary, in order to protect civilians and/or maintain and restore order in the very fragile environments of post-civil war states. Creating a peaceful security environment rather than just keeping peace represents a significant challenge for recent operations. It is therefore imperative to research on conditions under which the threat of force as well as the use of force can be effective in the context of peace operations. As a strategy that proactively employs pressure on warring parties, including the threat and actual use of force, theories of compellence can contribute to a better understanding of the utility of force during peace operations. Investigating the application of compellence strategies during peace operations will lead to further refinements of the current literature on compellence in the form of middle-range theory, providing additional empirical evidence for the conditions for success and develop an understanding of the causal mechanisms of such a strategy.